Sayings of Sri Ramkrishna, page 241
887. A devotee: Why is the Divine Mother called Yogamaya? Purusha = Spirit or Siva; Prakrti = Nature or Parvati.The Master: Yoga maya means the union of Purusha and Prakriti. Whatever you see is nothing but that union of the two. Haven't you seen the Siva-Kali image--Kali standing on Siva? Siva is lying prostrate like a corpse and Kali is with a fixed gaze upon Siva. All this means the same Purusha-Prakriti union. Purusha is inactive, hence Siva is lying down inert like a corpse. But by virtue of the union with Him, Prakriti is doing everything--creation, preservation and destruction. The same is the significance of the coupled image of Radha and Krishna.
Patanjali says in Mahabhasya: Knowledge has four parts: acquisition, study, teaching, and application. When all parts come together, knowledge finds perfection.
River Sarasvati went dry before 1900 B.C. At present Sarasvati River features as a pentimento from satellite earth images.Plain-talking historians are of the belief that polemics took precedence over facts on the question of Aryan Invasion, migration or lack there of. Aryans (Indo-Aryans) were the people of IVC. Other historians of opportunism are horsing around, putting the horses, chariots, Indo-Aryans here, there, everywhere on the chessboard, mucking up everything. The Indo-Aryans wrote the manual for horse training and were the very first broncobusters. Many historians are playing both sides, giving conflicting pros and cons. The colonial history of India: the west put down the Indians first as good for nothing bozos; then came along the archeological digs of Harappa by Sahni and Banerjee; the West put down the "Invading pastoral Aryans" and elevated the Dravidians as the civilized race; there was no invasion or mass murder of the natives of Harappa; before the Dravidians were admitted into the civilized club, some of the Indians were branded as Criminal Tribes (What a switch); the west found Sanskrit words common with their languages, so they dubbed Sanskrit as Indo-European language (why not plain-vanilla Indo-Aryan language) and elevated the North-west Indians. In 1856 before the discovery of Indus Civilization, two morons, John and William Brunton were building the East Indian Railway from Karachi to Lahore. They used the bricks from the Indus civilization as ballast. Brahminibad ancient bricks went into use for the railway; part of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro escaped the Brunton brothers' mindless quarrying of the ancient bricks, 3x10x20 inches. The excavation did not begin until 1920. It is possible that these two archeologically-challenged nincompoops did not get the contract to lay the gravel road near Stonehenge on Salisbury plain England, but ended up in India to do their carefully crafted bang-up botch with bootleg ancient bricks at the Indian railways.
As said earlier, Arjuna incarnates from
Vyasa, the author of Mahabharata and the Bhagavad Gita as told by Krishna, was born of a Brahmana father and a non-Aryan mother (a fisherwoman).
As a young woman, she met the wandering Rishi Parasara by whom she had a son, Vyasa (the son of a single mom). Parasara by his mystic power guaranteed that she would not lose her virginity from union and delivery. This reminds me of girls who had premarital sexual relations undergo hymenoplasty (surgical restoration of inviolate contour of hymenal ring)) to restore the appearance of hymen to its virginal inviolate state to impress the husband who insists on virginity in his wife in certain countries.
Pollution of water was a problem in olden times too; When the Buddha was born, polluted streams became clear; the lame walked; the deaf and dumb talked; the malevolent had a change to a heart of love; the angels rejoiced; peace came back to life; and Mara, the evil one, was in grief.
kṣudraṁ hṛdayadaurbalyaṁ tyaktvo 'ttiṣṭha paraṁtapa 2.3
Give up and rise up to the occasion.
Lord Krishna says that this sudden attack of grief speaks ill of a Ksatriya. Cowardice and weakness of the heart are the Tamasic qualities of king in retreat; the Sattvic Ksatriya must face the enemy, have a balanced emotion, weigh the outcome, and fight to win: That is Ksatriya's duty. Since retreat from battlefield for a Ksatriya is sin itself,
Bhisma and Drona, who are worthy of my worship, O Arisūdana?
Bhisma and Drona are worthy figures for reverence and even worship; they enjoyed high life under the Kauravas. Arjuna contends how he could enjoy same high life, after killing the revered Bhisma and Drona: All those enjoyments would have a taint of blood. Arjuna did not consider that his was a just cause and theirs was not. Arjuna's reverence, compassion, and love for the teachers, elders, and relatives overpowered his will to fight: He was shirking his duty.
2.6: We do not know what is better for us. Do we gain victory over them, or would they conquer us? We do not know that. We do not
Note: Dhrtarastra is the blind king with 100 sons, the Kauravas; and Duryodhana is the eldest. Arjuna sees a conflict between his dharma (duty) as a Ksatriya and his principle ahimsa (nonviolence) as a man
Dharma means duty and virtue. Arjuna cannot cope, and lost his verve and nerve. What can he do? Arjuna seeks advice from his God and his friend, Lord Krishna. Arjuna wants divine help in conflict resolution in his mind.
The king is the refuge of his subjects, the parents are the refuge of the children, righteousness is the refuge of men, Lord Hari is the refuge of all (Garuda Purana, 1.230.46).
Hrisikesam: the Lord of the senses. Gudakesa: the conqueror of sleep, a name for Arjuna.
Fall into silence may suggest here the beginning of a spiritual awakening for Arjuna, also known as the conqueror of sleep (ignorance). Gudākesa also means that Arjuna is “thick-haired.” Arjuna has reached the end of the rope. Initially he was exercising his reason and even reason has taken leave of him. The faintness of his heart hindered his capacity to address the call for duty. He has not even waited to see what his God Lord Krishna or teacher has to say on this matter: It shows a total exhaustion. That makes it all the more difficult for his savior or teacher to get him out of his deep depression, and inculcate some sense and dharma into Arjuna. Dhritrastra, the father of Kauravas, was happy to hear from Sanjaya that Arjuna, the archenemy of Kauravas, was losing the will to fight, which could end in the victory of the Kauravas.
Bhagavan: One who is endowed with Bhaga (Grace) is Bhaga-van. Bhaga consists of six attributes: (Transliteration from Tamil) Aisvaryam, Viryam, Pukaz, Tiru, Jnanam, and Viaragyam (Supremacy, Power, Glory, Sacredness, Wisdom, and desirelessness. others list the following attributes: knowledge of creation, maintenance, destruction, origin and sublation of all life forms, Supreme Truth, and Avidya or ignorance. Some say that the attributes correspond to nine angles of Yantra, which is a mystical diagram made of geometric forms, images, avaranas, deities, alphabets and syllables etched on metals and stones, whose purpose is to invoke god for progeny, health, and wealth and attain Samadhi
Others list the following: Sri (Auspiciousness), Virya (Power), Jnana (Wisdom), Vairagya (Dispassion), Kirti (Glory), and Mahatmya (Greatness).
We are spirit and matter, which are recycled according to the merit or demerit of karmic load. It is Samsara, birth and rebirth. Samkhya philosophy of dualism: Kapila was the founder and propounder of Samkhya philosophy. Its basis is not Vedic; it treats two juxtaposed contrary polar principles: Prakrti and Purusa. In Samkhya, Prakrti does not contaminate Purusa but the latter lights up Prakrti. Prakrtik products are Mahat, Ego, and the senses. It is the Purusa that lights up these products of Prakrti. Ramakrishna Paramahamsa illustrates this point by saying that the human body is like a pot and the mind, intellect and the senses are like water, rice and potato. When the pot is boiling the contents become hot, though the heat source is from the fire. Similarly, the power of Brahman causes the mind, intellect and the senses to function. When that power stops to act, all cease to work. Adapted from Sayings Ramakrishna, saying 27, page 28.
Woodroffe in Serpent Power: Prakrti is derived from Kr and the affix ktin which is added to express bhAva or the abstract idea and sometimes the Karma, or object of the action, corresponding with the Greek affix sis. Ktin inflected in the nominative becomes tih, tis. Prakrti therefore has been said to correspond with 'nature' of the Greeks (Banerjee, "Dialogues on Hindu Philosophy," 24). It is also called Pradhana,Pra+dha+anat=Pradhatte sarvam ātmani, or that which contains all things in itself, the source and receptacle of all matter and form. Pradhana also literally means" chief" (substance), for according to Samkhya it is the real creator.
Woodroffe:The first or Causal Body of any particular Jiva, therefore, is that Prakrti (Avidya-Sakti) which is the cause of the subtle and gross bodies of this Jiva which are evolved from it. This body lasts until Liberation, when the Jivatma ceases to be such and is the Paramatma or bodiless Spirit (Videha-mukti). The Jiva exists in this body during dreamless sleep (Susupti).
Bhagavatam. Nothing new can come out in this world that does not exist in Aparaprakrti in its potential form. Also from Prakrti evolves, Chitta which consists of Mahat, buddhi, ahankāra, and manas. Mahat has the unique ability to undergo transformation into this universe when it comes under the field of vision of the Lord, (influence of) Time, and three gunas, according to Bhagavatam 3.5.28.
When Sattva dominates pure Consciousness dominates; when Rajas (Action) dominates, the results are two-fold: dominance of Sattva or dominance of Tamas with mutual suppression of the other; when Tams dominates, there is veiling of consciousness. As Tattvas evolve, the more distant the tattva from Sakti Tattva, the degree of Sattva diminishes and Tamas rises gradually. Siddha Yogi is the purest and most Sattvic (Divya Bhava); he is Sat, Cit and Ananda (Consciousness, Being and Bliss). Among people, dominance of Rajas with suppression of Tamas produces a Vira (Hero) according to Tantrics. When Tamas Guna dominates, he is Pasu (animal). Prakrti exists in two states: quiescent and agitated. In quiescent state the Gunas are in equilibrium and thus a state of Avyakta (unmanifest) exists. Woodroffe calls it natura naturans. When Karma comes into the forefront, Sabdabrahman quickens and makes Spandana (vibration); Gunaksoba (agitation of Gunas) takes place and the universe is created. The products of Prakrti is called Vikara or Vikrti. Technically, milk is Vikara and curd is Vikrti, indicating the change.
Mahat is the Great principle and results in buddhi, from which develops ahankāra, I-ness or individuation. Mahat and buddhi are the cosmic and individual counterparts of intellect. Sixteen entities such as five faculties of action, manas (instinctive mind) five faculties of sense, and five tanmatras namely sound, touch, color, taste, and smell arise from ahankāra (ego). This pluripotential Prakrti (nature) results in gunas – Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. These three constituents of gunas are inseparable and form a complex – Sattva-Rajas-Tamas complex, which is inert, if it is in equilibrium. Only one of the three constituents is dominant in a person or entity. Sattva is knowledge, intellect, light, and balanced emotion; Rajas is the motor behind Sattva and Tamas; Tamas is darkness, passivity, or negativity. Without Rajas, Sattva, and Tamas are inert; dominance of Rajas naturally means revved-up emotions. These three gunas, complex or strands condition the manifest world, both animate and inanimate; the force behind this complex or strands is excitatory Purusa, which agitates these strands or gunas and causes disequilibrium and subsequently diversity and polymorphism. Bhagavatam (3.10.14) states that God created the first product Mahat by causing disturbance in the equilibrium of the gunas.
Taittiriya Upanishad Chapter 2 Section four
Mind is the sheath of Intellect or the self: Both Mind and Intellect have the shape of man: they are anthropomorphized for illustration. Intellect: Faith is its head; Rta or Rightness the right side; Satyam or Truth the left side; Contemplation the body; Mahat or the Great one the lower part or the foundation. Mind is the faculty of perception, receiving impressions from the external world; intellect is what grows inside the mind. Vedas are the external source of knowledge for the mind. Intellect, Vijnana, or experiential knowledge is the inner man or the soul (with body parts) that grows and matures and thus consists of faith, order, truthfulness, contemplation, and Mahat. Mind is outbound knowledge. Intellect, self or Vijnana is inbound Experiential Spiritual Knowledge, the ultimate function of which is realization of the Universal Consciousness: union of the soul or intellect with the Universal Consciousness.
Mind perceives by Samkalpa-Vikalpa, selection and rejection from the material provided by Janendriya--sense organs, --Woodroffe. Samkalpa = purpose, will, desire, determination. Vikalpa = imagination, doubt. Samkalpa is experiencing the perceived sensation by the mind and presenting the sensation to the AhamkAra and Buddhi, the former 'making the sensation his own in feeling and experience' and the latter making a determination on the sensation, so that the experiencer identifies with the sensation. Sensation is personalized by Ahamkara. Woodroffe states, 'when a sensation is perceived by the Manas (mind) and determined by Buddhi, Ahamkara says: "It is I who perceives it." Buddhi, Ahamkara being its part, pervades the organs, and is the repository of all Karmic tendencies (Samskaras), and the seat of memory.
Buddhi is the thinking entity involved in ideation and conceptualization with the help of AhamkAra, Manas and Indriyas (organs). Sense organs beam sensations to mind or Manas (perception); AhamkAra identifies them for personalization (self-arrogation); Buddhi stores the sensations for determination, cognition, resolution and presentation to Consciousness (Purusa), which illumines the Buddhi. Buddhi is the Charioteer; Manas, whose quality is Samkalpa-Vikalpa, is the reins; the senses are the horses; Jiva is the enjoyer. Buddhi is Sattva-dominant; AhamkAra is Rajas-dominant; Manas, Indriyas and their objects are Tamas-dominant.
The Subtle body is made of 17 Tattvas from Buddhi14 to odor31. AhamkAra15 is part of Buddhi14. Samkhya philosophy makes no mention of Prana (the pentad); the MAyAvAdins remove the Tanmatras (sound17, touch18, color19, taste20, and smell21) and put in the five Pranas (Prana, Samana, Apana, Udana, and Vyana..
Ramana Maharishi says that from the vast unbroken Being-Awareness-Self springs forth a separate "I" ( I am, my, mine, me) which falls into the error of confronting a world perceived as something other than the Self --Verse 156. A true seer and ascetic is the strong hero who has discarded the body-based ego. It is hard for those who still retain regard for Asrama or varna (caste) to cast off the ego's heavy burden. Varna and Asrama pertain to the body and ego. The egoless person is the true Brahmin and true ascetic--Verse 163. One who sees otherness and difference cannot become a Brahmin merely by the study of four Vedas. He alone is a true Brahmin who sees his ego dead and knows the Veda's import. Failing here one swelters inly (sic), fallen, despised--Verse163. If a traveler does not put down his luggage in the cart but carries it plainly on his head, whose fault is it? The Lord sustains the universe; the pseudo-self, which thinks it bears it, is like the grinning figure which seems to carry the weight of the temple tower--Verse 171. Adapted from The garland of Guru's sayings, pages 30 to 33.
Saiva siddhantist says, soul is the ever-awake knowing entity in wakefulness, deep sleep and dream sleep. The sense organs receive their respective stimuli (eyes perceive color and form, ears receive sound.) and pass them on to Antahkarana, the inner organ which consists of Manas (the Mind), Buddhi (Intellect), Ahamkara (Ego), and Chitta (Subconscious) (Chitta covers manas, ahamkara, and buddhi: mind, ego and power of discernment or judgment). Perception received by the inner organ reaches the soul, as the wave rolls to the shore.
The Buddhi is less subtle than Chitta, makes decisions and instructs the Mind which works in collaboration with the five Janendriyas (sense organs = eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin). Mind serves as the blackboard where on the sense organs register their impressions, which are converted as concepts by the mind and presented to Buddhi, which rejects most of them and keeps some as nuggets of knowledge. Buddhi keeps moving the knowledge back and forth between the front and back of the consciousness as Smrti and Apohana with the help of Chitta.
Antahkarana is operational in two modes: External knowledge Acquisition (Abhijna) and internal Self-Knowledge (Pratyabhijna) acquisition. In Abhijna knowledge acquisition, knowledge proceeds from the gross to the subtle, from the sense organs to Chitta. It also depicts the evolution of the gross from the subtle (Ahamkara, Chitta, Buddhi, Manas). In Pratyabhijna mode, it turns itself inward and obtain Self-Knowledge. Abhijna is outbound, while Pratyabhijna is inbound.
|Element(s)||Resulting Product||Cumulative & Special quality|
|Sound||Ether (all-pervasive, one quality)→→→||Sound|
|Ether||Air (two qualities)→→→→→→→→||Sound and Touch|
|Air and Ether||Fire (three qualities)→→→→→→→→||Sound, Touch, and color/form|
|Air and Fire||Water (four qualities)→→→→→→→||Sound, Touch, Color, and Taste|
|Water and Fire||Earth (five qualities)→→→→→→→→||Sound, Touch, Color, taste and odor.|
(Sutra and Suture are cognate words)
The AnandaMaya kosa or the Bliss-Body or Pure Consciousness or the Absolute is Self itself, and is a chronicler and a repository of karma of this and past lives. This is the sheath of Consciousness and Bliss (Cinmaya) and made of Nada and Bindu. Self is the companion of jivatma – the individual self and the Greater Self in the spiritual heart are like the two birds on a tree. The Self by itself is bliss, but man needs realization to find the light that is bliss. Man has four cumulative features but does not reach his inherent potential that is bliss, illumined Consciousness, if he does not strive for it. As you see, matter becomes finer from one stage to the next. Here is an illustration of evolution from the gross to subtle via Food sheath, Vital breath sheath, Mind sheath, Knowledge sheath and eventually to the Bliss sheath. When man strives for and gains perfection, he receives Ananda (Bliss); God according to the Vedas is Sat-Chit-Ananda– Satchidananda– Being, Consciousness, and Bliss. Bliss comes to man in Deep Sleep, when there are no mental Vrittis, modifications or thoughts. It is as if the individual self plugs into the Power Grid of the Universal Self (the origin of the individual self) every night in deep sleep. Without this infusion of nightly bliss, we are zombies. This temporary life-sustaining nightly Bliss should not be mistaken for the Eternal Bliss that comes with liberation. The first four outer sheaths are matter; Matter and Mind have to come to a standstill for the individual self wrapped in Anandamaya Kosa to enjoy the Bliss of the Universal Self.
Kosas and their origin
|Entity||Annamaya Kosa||Pranamaya Kosa||Manomaya Kosa||Vijnanamaya Kosa||Anandamaya Kosa|
|Sheaths||Food Sheath||Vital Air Sheath &|
|Mind Sheath||Knowledge Sheath||Bliss Sheath|
|Origin||Earth, Water and Fire. Lower three Chakras||Anahata and Visuddha Chakras||Ajna Chakra||Nada and Bindu Chakras||Sahasrara Chakra|
|Saiva View||Brahma shines in Food Sheath.||Vishnu shines in Breath Sheath.|
Rudra shines in the Mind Sheath.
|Mahesa shines in the sheath of Consciousness.||Sadasiva shines in the sheath of Bliss.|
|Saiva view is expressed by a real-life sage-poet by name Umapati Sivacharya (around 1300 C.E.) in Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu.|
Vaishnavas have this view on the Tattvas, 26 in all:
Prakrti, Mahat, Ahankaram = 3Tanmatras =5Five Bhutas = 510 Indriyas + manas = 11All these are Prakrti Tattvas, 24 in all.Jivatma is the 25th Tattva.Paramatma is the 26th Tattva.
TATTVAS-36 for more information on Tattvas.
It reminds me of the life (and times of) our Lord Jesus Christ."
Panchadasi puts forward the following theory with regards to Brahman, Jiva, and Prakrti. Prakrti is not a product of Brahman; it is not a palpable real entity separate from Brahman. It represents the Will (Iccha) of Brahman to create and this Will becomes (transforms into) the three gunas: Sattva, Rajas and Tamas which gel into material. When Prakrti is sattvic, it is called Maya; when it is dominated by Rajas and Tamas, it is called Avidya (nescience). Maya is the mirror that reflects Brahman; the reflected image of Brahman is called Isvara who controls Maya. It is like the lady who carries the mirror in her purse. The lady is Brahman, the mirror is maya and the lady's image in the mirror is Isvara. Sat Chit: Sat (Being) is Consciousness (Chit) and exercises its Will to create; therefore, it is Being, possessing and controlling maya, and becoming matter through the gunas.
On the other hand, Brahman is the subject; Avidya is the water-mirror; and Jiva is the inverted reflection of Isvara in water. What does it mean? Isvara' head is at a high point and man's head in the water-mirror is at the low point. Isvara's consciousness is Pure Consciousness at the high point, while Jiva's consciousness is at the low point; there is a wide chasm between these two entities--two heads. Man, as said before, is governed by ignorance (avidya), meaning that he identifies himself with the body and not with the soul (self) which is organically connected and related to Isvara. This ignorance is both veiling and projecting (Avarana and Vikshepa). This ignorance veils Sat and Cit (Being and Consciousness) of Brahman and projects the phenomenal world by Vikshepa. Vikshepa: power of ignorance that causes the world seem real. This projection is mediated by Tanmatras: Principles of Sound, touch, vision and color, taste and smell, which are pervaded by qualities Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. The Sattva of Sound becomes the sense of hearing; that of touch, the sense of touch and so on. These in combination form an entity called Antahkarana or inner organ which have four aspects: Manas, Buddhi, Ahankara and Chitta (citta). These were discussed above. The Rajas-dominated sound, touch, vision (color and form), taste, and smell become the respective motor organs.
|Sattva of Sound becomes hearing.||Sattva of touch becomes touch.||Sattva of vision or form becomes sight.||Sattva of taste becomes taste.||Sattva of smell becomes smell.|
|Rajas of Sound becomes larynx.||Rajas of touch becomes hand.||Rajas of vision or form becomes feet.||Rajas of taste becomes genitals.||Rajas of smell becomes rectum and anus.|
Quintuplication of elements (Panchikarana)
|Tamas of Sound becomes ether.||Tamas of touch becomes air.||Tamas of vision or form becomes fire.||Tamas of taste becomes water.||Tamas of smell becomes earth.|
Panchadasi says that these composite elements formed the Cosmic Egg (Brahma Anda) from which the universe came into being.
Let me mention the Tantric view, which is cognate with some aspects of Samkhya philosophy. Mahanirvana Tantra says the following as a dialogue between Sadasiva (Siva) and Devi (Sakti).
Sadasiva eulogies Devi.
From birth to naming ceremony--infancy and early Childhood
|Residence in the womb at conception.||wish for a son at the end of 1st trimester.||parting the hair of wife by the husband at 4th to 7th month of pregnancy.||Father welcomes the newborn and feeds ghee and honey* (Honey feeding is dangerous before one year of age because of botulism.)||naming ceremony between 11 to 41 days.|
Early childhood to preteen
|Feeding of solids at age 6 months.||ear-piercing at 1st, 3rd or 5th year of life.||Head shaving between 31 days and 4 yrs after birth.||Beginning of education at variable age.||Triple-cord ceremony; induction into study of sacred texts.|
Teen to marriage
|coming of age for girls. Menarche.||1st shave of the chin at age 16.||betrothal ceremony.||Marriage.|
Transition to spiritual life ending in death
|Transition from family life||Transition to life of seclusion and meditation.||Funeral rites.|
The best book I know of on Hindu Samskaras is written by Dr. Rajbali Pandey. The work was originally written as a thesis, which was approved by the Benares Hindu University for the degree of Doctor of Letters in 1936. The publisher is Motilal Banarsidass.
2.16: In the nonexistent (Asatah), there is no continuance (Bhāva), and in the existent (Satah), there is no cessation (Abhāva). In the two, the seers saw the truth and came to that conclusion.
It is like the salt in the water: You know it is there, but you do not see it. It is all-pervasive like the all-pervasive salt in the saltwater. You have an Atman and I have an Atman. How could that be possible if Atman is only One? Each one of us is like a pot holding one’s individual space inside. When the pot breaks, the space is still there. The Real (space) is Atman and the seeming (space) is limit of the Real as in a pot. The space is unbound and bound at the same time: The Real is unbound and the apparent has bounds. That is the difference between the Real and the apparent man. The phenomenal world is an apparent product of the Absolute by intermediation of time, space and causation. Since Atman has no form and is beyond mind, it cannot be under the control of time, space and causation.
When the dualistic waves fall back into the monistic ocean, the transient dualism disappears and the Monism exists as it does always. How can there be finite elements in the Infinite or the Absolute? As the waves rise and fall (superimposition) on the ocean surface, transient elements rise and fall on the Absolute. That is an illusion and superimposition. The term for this apparent and unreal phenomenon or change is called Vivarta. Now it is there; and now it is not there, as the waves rise and fall: It is Maya (illusion). Monists say that the Prakrti becomes products (Vikara or Vikrti) of the universe. The substrate is Prakrti and the substance is the universe of products. The products are called Vikara or Vikrti. Example: Curds (Yogurt) is the Vikara of milk. Vikara is transformation from to another and the product. The Time, Space, and causation elements are translucent elements between the Upper Absolute and the lower universe. The lower universe is a superimposition on the Absolute seen through time, space, and causation. The allegory of a snake and a rope explains this superimposition. In the dark, we see a snake in a rope; the rope is real and the snake is a superimposition and unreal. When ignorance dissipates on closer inspection, the real asserts itself. In the same manner, the phenomenal world (the snake) superimposes on the absolute (the rope). Once ignorance dissipates, realization sets in.
How could you say that Atman pervades everything in the universe, both sentient and insentient? You cannot compare a tree or an animal to a man. Yes, you can. Sentience is same in all. Only the extent of its manifestation varies. Sentience manifests the most in man and the least in the insentient or the inanimate and somewhere between from the plants to animals. Saiva Siddhanta asserts the power of Sakti (Tattva) exists in all beings and matter. Consciousness sleeps in the stone, feels in the flora, senses in the fauna and thinks in man. Sentience runs parallel with consciousness. Since there is only a difference in the (expression) degree of sentience between animal and man, how could one kill an animal for whatever purpose? That is the basis of Ahimsa or noninjury.
"And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell."
திருநெடுந்தாண்டகம் by Tirumangai Azvar Divyaprabhandam Verse 2052
Here is Srivaishnava Tattvatriyam: Isvara, Cit and Acit. God, the Sentient and the Insentient.
This verse speaks of the body as evanescent lightning. God is like the Vedas, dispelling darkness of spiritual ignorance; He is like the waxing moon. The soul is the background and the body is in the foreground. The free soul is without birth or death. The Supersoul is of the golden form abiding in the body, like a gem, easily accessible; It is like the fire. You are the Father who rests Your lotus-like feet on my head. (The individual soul is in the background (பின் உரு); the lightning-like changing body is in the foreground (முன் உரு). Pon Uru (பொன் உரு) is Golden Form meaning the Universal Soul. Note the vocalic alliteration: முன், பின், பொன். What is in front (முன் உரு) is the mutable form--body, what is behind (பின் உரு) the body is the immutable individual soul. All the miseries of the front body, the back soul does not have. The Golden Form (பொன் உரு) does suffer the miseries of the embodied soul. The Golden Form is Bhagavan (Isvara); the back soul is Cit (sentient); the front body is Acit (insentient). Cit in its free state is immutable and has no death, rebirth, disease, old age and other maladies of mankind. Body with the resident Cit suffers from the maladies.
what is behind, above, below, inside, outside is the Golden Form, the all-pervasive Universal soul. O God, You only showed me the difference between the body and the soul. Bhagavan, the Universal Soul of the Golden Form, abides in the spiritual heart.
Philosophy of DruidsAlexander Cornelius Polyhistor referred to the Druids as philosophers and called their doctrine of the immortality of the soul and reincarnation or metempsychosis"Pythagorean":"The Pythagorean doctrine prevails among the Gauls' teaching that the souls of men are immortal, and that after a fixed number of years they will enter into another body."Caesar remarks: "The principal point of their doctrine is that the soul does not die and that after death it passes from one body into another" (see metempsychosis). Caesar wrote:"With regard to their actual course of studies, the main object of all education is, in their opinion, to imbue their scholars with a firm belief in the indestructibility of the human soul, which, according to their belief, merely passes at death from one tenement to another; for by such doctrine alone, they say, which robs death of all its terrors, can the highest form of human courage be developed. Subsidiary to the teachings of this main principle, they hold various lectures and discussions on astronomy, on the extent and geographical distribution of the globe, on the different branches of natural philosophy, and on many problems connected with religion".—Julius Caesar, "De Bello Gallico", VI, 13Diodorus Siculus, writing in 36 BCE, described how the druids followed "the Pythagorean doctrine", that human souls "are immortal and after a prescribed number of years they commence a new life in a new body." One modern scholar has speculated that Buddhist missionaries had been sent by the Indian king Ashoka.Others have invoked common Indo-European parallels. Caesar noted the druidic doctrine of the original ancestor of the tribe, whom he referred to as Dispater,or Father Hades. Wikipedia
This jivātman and Paramatman are like the two companion birds on a tree. The jiva bird is eating the sweet fruits, while Paramatman is watching and witnessing, and taking notes without eating, contented, great, and free from sorrow. The jiva bird, once it finishes eating the fruits on one tree, goes to the next tree. The tree here represents the body and the bird represents the jivatma. Here eating means the jiva identifies itself with the body, the body-mind-senses complex experiencing pleasure and pain, and other life events. The transmigrating jivātman, one among many, is susceptible to rebirth, while all-pervasive Paramatman, free from Vasanas, Samskaras (impressions from past life), Karma and transmigration, is One (Paramatman), but appears as many. Karma is the cause of transmigration of the individual soul. Discussion of Karma will appear elsewhere.
Indian Mystic Maher Baba (1894-1969) talks about colonial India to Paul Brunton (1898-1981) who went in search of Yogis and Rishis in India.
Maher Baba: "The so-called subjection of India is not real subjection. It is of the body, and therefore temporary. The soul of the country is deathless and great, even if outwardly the nation has lost its power."
Paul Brunton: "This subtle explanation somewhat eludes my understanding."
The word body is from the root bodig meaning 'trunk, chest' or botah of unknown origin. What a dull word 'body' is.
The astral or subtle body (Suksma Sarira) consists of many sheaths namely vital air sheath (Prāna), mental, and intellectual-instinctive sheaths–buddhi, ahankāra, manas, indriyāni, and tanmātrāni. The causal body (Kārana Sarira) is the most important and the innermost sheath consisting of the soul as light, which has a record of all karmas of present and past lives and Bliss.
When someone dies, the physical body goes to the elements that nourished the physical body; the vital air sheath dissipates, leaving the intellectual-instinctive and mental sheath with the karmic sheath, the soul-light, and Bliss intact. Brhad-aranyaka UP: 3.2.13: According to Yajnavalkya, on death, the speech of a dead person goes into the fire, the breath into the air, the eyes into the sun, the mind into the moon, the hearing into the space, the body into the earth, the self into the ākāsam (ether), the hairs of the body into the bushes, the hairs of the head into the trees, and the blood and the seed go into the waters. The message is the body parts come home to their respective cosmic counterparts. Karma, Dharma, and the functions of the respective organs including that of the mind are the companions of the soul, when the kosas drop and go to their gross or subtle source. Please read the commentary section of verse 40 for details.
He is stable and immovable. There is stillness and movement. Just like the river that runs deep, there is stillness on the surface and movement deep in the river. It is like the earth, which moves, rotates and goes around the sun, yet there is no movement perceived by us.
Garuda Purana (1.113.48-52) states that karma brings killer and victim together. Man receives what he is destined to receive. Karma takes him against his will to places where he does not want to go and yet goes. Flowers and fruits come into season at their appointed time, so is the bane or boon of karma. Karma seeks and finds the doer just like a calf finds its mother in the melee of a thousand cows. Your actions follow you doggedly in this life and hereafter, for better or worse.
When an infant is born, it may have some visible marks, which may indicate what is affecting the infant. If the ears are malformed, it may be a clue to impaired hearing which may prevent the child from developing normal speech. This infant can be helped with early detection of hearing impairment.
According to Hindu religion, all infants are born with five invisible marks that determine his or her future. The teaching is not to grieve or exult over such things but cope with them, especially if they are adverse events.
However, Ramakrishna Paramahamsa had experienced Brahman many times and offered his insight: Brahman performs magic shows, Brahman’s conjuring deludes the audience, Brahman is Real, Brahman’s magic show is unreal, and Brahman’s world is illusory.
He elaborates further: One sees a shaft of light, one feels joy, one experiences upsurge of immense current in one’s chest, and one sees another person (Brahman or the Self) within him. This tells us the Greater Self and the individual self reside in the spiritual heart in the right side of the chest in the form of light.
Nitya Dharma is Jiva’s (embodied soul) transcendental love (Krishna Prema) for Krishna. It implicitly accepts the existence of Isvara and the eternality of soul. Service to Krishna is part of Krishna Prema. Krishna is infinite; Supreme Nature is His immutable eternal Pure Vastu (substance). A Jiva is part pure, and part impure because of contamination with Maya. His pure spiritual part pulls him towards Krishna and his impure material nature pulls him to the world of Indriyas (sense organs). If his Indriyas are used in the glory of Krishna, there is concordance of spirit and matter. His Prema and his connectedness to Krishna keep him pure which is and should be his sva-dharma. Desires of the external world must be eliminated and sublimated into Prema for Krishna; that is Nitya Dharma, which is complete, pure and eternal. Knowledge and practice of connectedness to Krishna (Sambanda Jnana) is an essential element in Nitya Dharma. Bajans involving group chanting of Krishna’s many names are another feature. Babaji studied paradox calls Sankara’s Advaita Siddhi identical with Prema, which is a spontaneous magnetic attraction of two transcendental entities close together and not having any bearing to matter. Prema is love; the donor of Prema and the Recipient-enjoyer are two entities. In South India, Vaishnavites express the same idea in a slightly different way. All men and women in relation to Krishna are Striya (women) for the enjoyment of Purusa, Krishna, who gives in return Bliss or Grace to his devotees. Babaji stresses the identical nature of the substance of Krishna and Jiva (the soul) before the Jiva acquired a body. It is proposed that Ashtanga Yoga or meditation of Parabrahman cannot attain spiritual realization and purification as obtained by Krishna Prema and Bhakti. My understanding: Though the souls came from Krishna, Moksa of the souls does not allow resolute and absolute merger. Krishna is one entity and all the liberated souls are another entity enjoying close proximity to Krishna.
Bhaktas, Bhubuksus and Mumukshus
Some Acharyas classify Bhakti into Suddha (Pure) and Viddha (selfish); the latter being Karma Viddha and Jnana Viddha, by which an aspirant seeks favor from Krishna. Pure Bhakti is the best path recommended by Bhagavan Krishna in BG 6.47: A Yogi who worships with Sraddha and inner self abiding in Me is considered by Me as the greatest and the highest (of all Yogis). BhaktA loves God for love's sake and the Viddhas love God for something in return. Karma Viddhas are the ubiquitous visitors (Bubhuksus- one, hungry for enjoyment) to the temple and do rituals at home and temples for health, wealth, happiness, education, employment, prosperity, matrimony, progeny ... The Jnana Viddhas are the seekers of liberation (Mumuksus) whose aptitude is towards meditation, breathings exercises (Ashtanga Yogam)... Both are seekers of something; Bhakta's substance is love, while Viddha's is want.
Bhakti Marga guarantees and promotes Krishna Prema and attaining Krishna.Sravanam: hearing, chanting, listening and enjoying the exploits of many incarnations of God.Kirtanam: singing the eulogies of God.Smaranam: Thinking constantly of God, Japam.PAda Sevanam: Serving (at) the feet of the Lord. Doing Kaimkaryam for the Lord in the temple or doing service to the BhAgavatAs (devotees).Archanam: Offering of water, flower, fruit, leaf to the God.Vandanam: showing reverence or homage to God by prostration.DAsyam: Doing service to God in the capacity of a slave or servant.Sakyam: சக்கியம்: To act as a friend to God, who is the constant companion in life, death and thereafter.Atma nivEdanam: ஆத்மநிவேதனம் = offering oneself to God; self-dedication.
Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare|Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare.||
Varnasrama Dharma mandates that an individual performs his caste Dharma. Dharma has its root in Dhr, Dhara meaning support. By performing one's Varnasrama Dharma, one supports the universe and keeps it in order; it is upholding one's duty. Dharma is more powerful than gods, men, and nature; the universe is supported by its equivalent Rta (same as the Egyptian Maat). A story goes like this. Ganges river overran the banks and was threatening neighboring towns and villages. The hymn-chanting Brahmins, heroic king, rich merchants could not stop the overflowing Ganges river, because they were not truthful to and supportive of their duty. Along came a Sudra prostitute, saying that she would stop the river. She did stop the river, which flowed backwards. The king asked her what was so special about her Truth or Dharma. She said, "O King, in the performance of my profession, I was faithful to the Truth (Dharma) in serving the rich and the poor, the handsome and the ugly alike and gave them equal service for equal money."
Buddhi helps you come to conclusions; manas flies on the wings of doubt; ahankara burdens you with pride; Chitta helps you remember.
The body is the chariot and the atman is riding on the chariot; Buddhi – intuitive intelligence– is the chariot driver; the mind is the reins and the senses are the horses. Buddhi, the chariot driver, controls the mind, ahankāra (ego), and the senses. Control of the mind and senses is a precondition for understanding self. Accomplished buddhi by its nature and training is discriminating, restrained, calm, contented and forgiving, unless there are some dominant vitiating factors such as senses. These characteristics weigh heavily, when buddhi discriminates between purusa and Prakrti and consequently liberation is attainable. In other words, the I-factor or I-ness or ego, the mind, and Indriyas – sense organs – must come under the influence of enlightened buddhi. When it happens, the ever-luminous light of self or atman imparts its light and glow to buddhi. Now buddhi and atman are in unison, leading to a union between these two principles. Discussion of Karma occurs elsewhere.
Let me give you some information on the cumulative usefulness of endeavor in the pursuit of Brahman and attainment of moksa after many births. Brahma Sutra 4.2.1: According to scriptures, the function of speech at death merges into the mind; the mind merges into vital breath or life; life merges into the individual soul; this soul-life entity merges into the functions of gross elements (ether, air, fire, water, and earth): All these said entities make up the subtle body with a load of karma. (The subtle body is composed of the so-called "17": Buddhi1 inclusive of Ahamkara, Manas2 (mind), the ten senses12 (Indriyas) and the five Tanmatras.17 Mayavadins have put the five Pranas in the place of Tanmatras. There may be other variations.)
. The subtle body with karma at zero-sum status is free from rebirth; however, subtle body with a load of karma is in a potential seminal state waiting to receive a physical body. Mind after death is part of the subtle body. The soul-life entity of the knower of Nirguna Brahman goes to Brahman Himself, according to Ramanuja.
When a person dies, the body dies and what remains are the functions of all organs, the mind, and the prānas. These undying remnants, called soul-life entity have a few destinations: It can go to Brahman permanently, if it does not have a karmic load on it; or it can enjoy a certain period of respite in various nontemporal worlds according to the weight, nature and quality of its karmic load. The functions of all organs including the mind of this soul-life entity of the dead remain intact in the subtle body’s memory (Vāsanās or fragrance with samskara or impressions). According to its karmic load, subtle body will find a home in a physical body with relevance to “ancestry, heredity, and environment.”
Whatever you think, say or do becomes an impression on your mind during life and a copy of each impression is carried by the subtle body and these impressions show up as behavior patterns in one's life. As the genes carry the color of the eyes from generation to generation, subtle body carries the load of impressions from one birth to the next. Subtle body changes its physical body at each birth; the subtle body may take the body of a white man in one life and a black man the next and so on; it may even take an animal body.
Jung says: "our idea of heredity would be similar to the idea of Samskara, as well as our hypothesis of the collective unconscious."
The benefits from meditation, contemplation, and religious study collect in the repository of soul-life entity over many births until liberation: They do not go to waste; the mind as a function remains intact over many births.
Heavenly pleasures are the same as the earthly counterparts, colored by envy and rivalry, decay and waste. Striving on earth to go to heaven is like sowing seeds that may or may not germinate. Any aspirant for heaven must take heed to my words, guidance and path, failing which going to heaven is impossible. An aspirant, performing rituals and worshipping gods according to prescribed scriptural injunctions will find his way to heaven and enjoy heaven's fruits. These rituals and practices elevate an aspirant to the gates of heaven where he enjoys wearing beautiful clothes, eating and drinking the best of foods, making merry and receiving adulations from the ancestors. Thus enjoying the heavenly fruits with abandon and complacency, and happily playing in the celestial garden, the dweller of heaven is smug in his thinking that this is for ever with no premonition of his fall back down to earth. The monstrous moment comes, when the savings of merit earned from good deeds in the previous life have gradually eroded to naught. Bound to the Karmic weight and a body, and propelled by Time, the enjoyer falls from the high heaven.
The lesson is that prescriptive rituals take the aspirant to heaven and when the merit is exhausted, he is returned to earth. No-return Salvation comes to those who serve the Lord at his feet by devotion (Bhakti).
The View from the West ( based on Indian Myth and Legend By Donald Mackenzie and others)
The religious history of India has four ages: 1) The Vedic Age; 2) The Brahmanical Age; 3) The Buddhist Age; 4) the Age of Reform and Revival of Brahmanism.
The Buddhist age started in the six century before Christ, grew in appeal and replaced Brahmanism as pan-Indian religion. In the tenth century, Brahmanism underwent revival under the guidance of Upanishads and reformation from the teachings of the Buddha. The high speculative philosophy and doctrines of the Upanishads were largely unknown to the ordinary masses. That knowledge was in the exclusive domain of Brahmanas. The Buddhism's and Jainism's growth and nurture started with the Kshatriyas. The elaborate rituals had an oppressive effect on the growth of Hinduism in general ; the gods and men were dependent on the priests for sacrifice and communication. Gods were afraid to alienate the priestly class for fear that they may not receive their daily oblations. Eventually the priests won over the Kshatriyas and became the exclusive purveyors of spiritual and ritual domain. The wandering Bhiksus not bent on performing rituals and rites and the Kshatriyas who resented the domination of the priestly class brought about change in the religious landscape by saying that there is a Supreme personal God not subject to and not wanting rites and rituals. Bhakti (devotion) to a personal God is the only requirement. The Alvars and the Naynanars were the purveyors of Bhakti movement. The Greek ambassador, Megasthenes notes that Siva and Vishnu (Krishna) were worshipped in 300 B.C. as High Gods. At that time in history the concept of Yugas was fully developed. Rg Veda extols Vishnu as the god of grace, though He was not a primary deity then. There is a reference to His high step as Vamana. In Yajur Veda Vishnu receives a prominent mention and the Brahmanas refer to Him as the blessed Cosmic Spirit. Siva was Vedic Storm god Rudra. Vishnu and Siva were worshipped as the Great Gods and became the leading gods of their respective cults.
vyavasāyātmikā7 buddhiḥ8 samādhau9 na10 vidhīyate11
Vedas give descriptive and prescriptive details on the performance of rituals for obtaining possessions, sense pleasures, and heaven. The rituals and actions result in the fruits of karma, which is thought, word, and deed; deed carries more weight than a thought, unit for unit. Karma is cumulative and continuous during one’s lifetime; thus, it reflects the past, the present, and the real-time; karmas result in the cycle of birth and rebirths. Karmas resolve in many ways: Some are in storage for resolution as fruits of actions (consequences, good or bad) in the future births, some resolve in this life, some undergo resolution in real-time, and some are in storage for the future as seed karmas. Perfect karma is a zero-sum entity: When a person pares down his karma to a zero-sum status by engaging in neutral or no acts, the unburdened atman is ready to merge with Paramatman. Unresolved karma guarantees rebirth and determines “the ancestry, heredity, and environment.” When bad incidents happen to good people, bad karma is bearing fruits. When the actions of past life or lives bear fruit in this life, the resulting consequence is unforeseen and appears as if an invisible hand is dispensing either reward or punishment; this power goes under the name, adrishta. Nobody escapes the pleasure, the pain, and the ravages--the good, the bad, and the ugly--of karma, according to Hindus.
1. Prārabda Karma (Actively sprouting seed karma)2. Āgami Karma (Kriyamana Karma, coming, approaching, impending, harvested seed Karma)3. Sanchita karma (Storehouse seed karma, the silos)
Generally Prarabdha Karmic fruit comes in three flavors: Adhidaivika, Adiyatmika and Adhibautika (Theogenous, endogenous and exogenous).
Adhidaivika (Theogenous Misery) karmic fruit originates from God and determines the heredity, ancestry, and environment of the eater of the fruit. The birth may be of high, average or low status with its fruits; the souls after departure may enter heaven or hell for pleasure or pain. Vedas pronounce the word of God. The violator goes to hell and suffers; the complier goes to heaven and enjoys bliss. The Lord dispenses fruits according the merit or demerit of one's karma; that is the will of God. Suffering in hell abolishes sins. Another source tells that Theogenous misery happens at conception and embryonic stage, at birth, and at death.
Theogenous and Endogenous Miseries are both mental and physical.
- Mental Miseries are அழுக்காறு, அவா, வெகுளி, கவலை (Envy, Desire, Anger, and Anxiety).
- Physical Miseries are பிணி, காயம் (Disease, Injury).
Acarpous Karma: If the seeds (actions) are neither white nor black, they result in sterile or acarpous (ashukla-akrishna--neither white not black) seeds. Rishis, by sterile karma-free actions, kaivalya, and realization of the Self create the sterile seeds. Some of the newly harvested Āgami karmic seeds sprout (bear fruits) in this life, as it is the case with prārabda karma; some seeds that do not sprout and bear fruits now, go into storage in Sanchita karmic silos. The stored seeds of Sanchita karma are dormant (anarabhda) and the sprouting seeds of Prarabdha karma are arabdha (sprouting). SEE Chapter 3 Verse 28 Comments on inflows into the silos.
Author expresses his views here on karma: Karma is thought, speech, and deed. A perfect karma is null karma: a zero-sum entity. In this world, karma is the only equalizer of all living beings; therefore, you wish you were holding an empty bag of karma. The fried karmic seeds are healthier and tastier than germinating seeds or nuts. The fact you are reading this means that your karma is in the barrel for discharge, resolution, roasting, sprouting or accumulation. Karma is something you do not wish on your friend or your enemy, because it can boomerang on you (adrishta) when you least expect it in this birth or future births: You will never know. Unit for unit thought is one karmic unit, speech is ten karmic units, and deed is ten to the power of ten karmic units. This karmic unit can be meritorious or demeritorious (positive or negative, punyam or papam), or neutral, acarpous or “sterile.” One's aim is zero karmic units, because getting moksa is zero-sum game; only in karma, zero karmic units is better than positive or negative units, because anything other than zero karmic units guarantees birth, accumulation of Sanchita Karma and sprouting of Prārabda karma. Isoelectric status or line is better than amplitudes either way.
Sankaracharya states that God provides the necessary ingredients for any possible path man chooses. He provides the rain, the earth, the nutrients, the opportunities and seeds (karma) and Himself as the constant companion of man; the karma (and dharma) of men are like the seeds, which will germinate, sprout and grow into their respective plants under identical soil conditions. God-pleasing thought, speech and deed would kill, roast or destroy the karmic seeds. Rishis roast the karmic seeds by the heat produced by Kaivalya.
Actions in this phenomenal world are the fodder for karma. When life events go wrong, one should not fall apart, but stay steady in the knowledge that karma is resolving; your previous karma has put you in circumstances over which you have no control (adrishta). According to karmic principles, you are self-natal (self-born), self-controlling, self-sustaining, and self-releasing. You cannot blame your parents for your birth; they are the womb, the egg, and the seed (sperm) in physical terms; in karmic terms, your prarabdha karma chooses the womb, the egg, and the seed for your body. Everybody else and everything else have a secondary role in your life; resolution and God-pleasing acts help one gain a karma-free state: liberation or moksa.
Experiencing or receiving Brahman knowledge is Aparoksha and Alaukika Jnana, perceptible (spiritual) knowledge. Everything else is Paroksha and laukika knowledge, mere intellectual. Perception indicates spiritual and not intellectual knowledge (arts and sciences). Receiving Brahman knowledge is Sākshātkāra, evident or intuitive perception, realization, super-sensual experience, Experience-Whole.
Aproksha = Direct perception. Alaukika: Not worldly. Laukika = Worldly
Inaction means nonperformance of one's duty. Gandhi said the relationship between God and man is like that of a master and a slave, and that of a puppeteer and a puppet. The slave owner decides on the reward to a slave; the puppet has no say in what a puppeteer does.
To dilate further on the yogi in making, the following is in order:
Sankaracharya says that these souls enjoy Jivanmukti, corporeal liberation
tadā gantāsi nirvedaṁ śrotavyasya śrutasya ca 2.52
In Savikalpa samādhi, the consciousness of the yogi is aware of its proximity to the Brahman, the self-awareness is still present, and the yogi experiences bliss and ecstasy.
In Nirvikalpa Samādhi, the distinction between the yogi and the Brahman disappears, they become one (absorption of the yogi into Brahman takes place) and the yogi experiences bliss and ecstasy. Distracted mind, stray thoughts, “astringent, sharp (Kasaya) reminiscences,” (simply put an audiovisual tape running in the background of the mind), deep dreamless sleep, and Savikalpa samādhi are the obstacles to Nirvikalpa Samādhi. Why is Savikalpa Samādhi an obstacle? This is so because the yogi is an enjoyer and wants to keep on enjoying the juice (rasa) of bliss. Still the mind has not crossed the subtle line, boundary, space or chasm between nearness and a total assimilation or union or absorption or merging. The assimilation is similar to the wave falling into the water and disappearing. This cessation of action and motion in Nirvikalpa Samadhi is called Uparama. There are five modification of mind, Pramana, Viparyaya, Vikalpa, Nidra and Smrti. Pramana = Correct notion, correct knowledge, true conception, comprehension. Viparyaya = inverted notion, perverse idea, misapprehension. Vikalpa: conceptualization. Nidra = sleep. Smrti = memory.
The third stage is a preparation for the last stage. The yogi transcends
The Tortoise and the Senses: Bhagavatam (Canto 11, Chapter 5, Verse 11- 13- 14) states the following: 11) man is naturally inclined towards enjoyment of sexual pleasure, flesh and wine. No rules enjoin them to indulge in them. A certain check is provided over these tendencies (by the Sastra) by permitting sexual commerce with one's wedded wife. meat-eating at the end of an animal sacrifice, drinking of wine during SautrAmani sacrifice; the intention is to turn man away from them. 12) They do not understand the pure essence of their religion. Only the smelling of wine is sanctioned and animal sacrifice is allowed fro the adoration of the deities and it is not permissible to kill them for meat. 13) Those who are ignorant of this Dharma and, though wicked and haughty, account themselves virtuous kill animals without any feeling of remorse or fear of punishment, and are devoured by those very animals in their next birth.
The view from the West:
Tortoise (KUrma): The cosmos is an egg, which Prajapati the creator broke. There emerged a tortoise with its upper shell representing the sky, its body and atmosphere, and the lower shell the earth. Thus the tortoise came to symbolize the three worlds. The fluid in the egg is the life-sap. The West is of the belief that Tortoise, Fish (Matsya) and the Boar (Varaha) avatars of Lord Vishnu represent an earlier stage in the pantheon of Avataras (incarnations), all three constituting the Prajapati forms. The tortoise figures prominently in the cosmic churning of the Causal Ocean; the churning stick was the Mount Mandara; the back of the Tortoise was the steady base; and the main product among others was Ambrosia (Amrta). A living and breathing tortoise formed the living brick in the first layer in the construction of the northern altar of the universe. Tortoise motif is seen in the namesake Kasyapa, who is the secondary creator and whose name means tortoise. Thus tortoise symbolizes the ideal man. India itself rests on the back of a tortoise facing eastwards. Tortoise again forms the base of all altars, symbolizing the source of all things. Tortoise motif (in all things) represent Narayana, the basis of everything.
In addition, the devotee has to offer his mind (subject his mind to the will of God); without the effacement of the mind, offerings have no value. You have many emotions; a couple of them are fear and desire which besiege you all your life. You have your all-consuming and all-enveloping ego. Joseph Campbell (The Power of Myth, page 107) says, "If you are no longer attached to your ego existence, but see the ego existence as a function of a larger, eternal totality (Brahman, God) and you favor the larger against the smaller, then you won't be afraid of these two figures (fear and desire) and you will go through (the door of the temple)."
There are four kinds of ego: Karuthruthva (I am the doer), bhogthruthva (I am the enjoyer), Jnathruthva (I am the Knower) and Seshtva (I am the only devotee). This is not the healthy attitude for a human being to arrogate himself as the exclusive doer, enjoyer, knower, and devotee. This four-fanged ego serves to create conflict with the next person, being and God. It is a series of "I AM. " Krishna is a I-series killer. God is the One who has the four-part distinction; man cannot. One has to sacrifice this four-part ego if one wants to attain God or live in peace with the next man and God.
There is another way of looking at it.
Aham (அகம்) is Atma. I (நான்) is my Atma and not the body. My (என்) is the body. Whenever a person refers to himself as I , he always refers (and should refer) to Atma or soul. Whenever a person refers to My, he refers to his body. Since one I is not different from the next I, all Is are equal.Giving up all his wishes and pleasures: Since the aggregate of all Is came from the putative Supreme I, you are looking up and subservient and subject to the Will of the Supreme I.
The screen that is drawn between the devotees and the idol in the temple stands for the Prakrti (matter) between God and man; matter blocks the vision of God.
Ramakrishna Parmahamsa says in Sayings of Ramakrishna, saying 103, page 46, as long as there is egotism neither Jnana (self-knowledge) nor Mukti (liberation) is possible; and there is no cessation of birth and death.
The Lord originates ego from His Prakrti (matter); the individual’s ego should always be subservient to the Lord. When ego goes out of your heart and mind, bliss comes in. In the ocean of samsāra (birth and rebirth), EGO is driftwood and boat is the Bliss. Take the “Boat” and abandon the driftwood. Say, “Ye go, Ego.” Say NAY to “I”-ness.
Consciousness is contaminated with ego, desire, and fruit of action; this contaminated consciousness is like the ore which has to be divested of earth, impurities and contaminants before it is smelted and rendered into pure gold. In like manner, consciousness divested of ego, desire and fruit of action goes through the fire of love, devotion and worship before man is ready for the shining Grace of God.
God's grace is huge, incomparable, and forgiving. He, by his grace, offers bliss, if a person decides to allow God into his heart for the first time in his life at (the hour of) death, and remains convincingly in a spiritualstate.
Sir John Woodroffe on Dharma, 1918.
The general Indian Religion or Bharata Dharma holds that the world is an Order or Cosmos. It is not a Chaos of things and beings thrown haphazard together, in which there is no binding relation or rule. The world-order is Dharma, which is that by which the universe is upheld (Dharyate). Without Dharma it would fall to pieces and dissolve into nothingness. But this is not possible, for though there is Disorder (Adharma), it exists, and can exist only locally, for a time, and in particular parts of the whole. Order however will and, from the nature of things, must ultimately assert itself. And this is the meaning of the saying that Righteousness or Dharma prevails.source